The authority of the Bahre Negashes declined in the 18th century, as the region descended into clan warfare that lasted more than 100 years.
Abyssinian kings from neighbouring Tigray brought sections of the Eritrean highlands under their rule during the last half of the 19th century, but their dominion ended with the entry of the Italians in the 1880s.
Egypt (1846-85): In 1846, Mohammed Ali’s forces took control of Ottoman Habesh and enlarged it by annexing adjacent independently-ruled Eritrean regions in Bogos and Danakil.
Egyptian forces also expanded into western Eritrea from the Sudanese town of Kessala, though they suffered major losses when they tried to drive further inland.
The Five Beja Kingdom (8th-13th Century): Starting as early as the 4th century, the Beja, a Cushitic people, originating in Sudan, began making incursions into Axumite territory along the sea coast and in the highlands of north-western Eritrea.
Five distinct but interrelated Beja kingdoms at their height stretched from southern Egypt to north central Eritrea.
The Axumite Empire (1st-9th century AD)The Axumite Empire, centred in the Eritrean highlands and what is now northern Ethiopia, flourished for nearly a thousand years.
At its height in the 3rd and 4th centuries, Axum’s domains stretched across the Red Sea to include much of modern Yemen.